Programmable Surface cleaning robot using Blowers and Electromagnet


A robot is an electro-mechanical device that can perform autonomous or preprogrammed tasks. A robot may act under the direct control of a human (eg. the robotic arm of the space shuttle) or autonomously under the control of a programmed computer. Robots may be used to perform tasks that are too dangerous or difficult for humans to implement directly (e.g. nuclear waste clean up) or may be used to automate repetitive tasks that can be performed with more precision by a robot than by the employment of a human (e.g. automobile production.)

The word robot is used to refer to a wide range of machines, the common feature of which is that they are all capable of movement and can be used to perform physical tasks. Robots take on many different forms, ranging from humanoid, which mimic the human form and way of moving, to industrial, whose appearance is dictated by the function they are to perform. Robots can be grouped generally as mobile robots (eg. autonomous vehicles), manipulator robots (eg. industrial robots) and self reconfigurable robots, which can conform themselves to the task at hand.

Proposed Idea

Here we have an idea to construct a Robot which can be used for cleaning purposes. The robotic movements are controlled by a stepper motor.  It has a blower unit fitted into it.  It also has a Electromagnet fitted into it. So when the electromagnet is energized it absorbs the iron wastes and after moving to another area the it drops the wastes by demagnetizing the elelctromagnet.  The movement of the robot is done with the help of the stepper motor for cleaning purposes.  The robo will also have a sensors fitted into it for automatic obstacle detections  and abnormal conditions.

Hardware Requirements

  • PIC 16F877 Controller board
  • Opto coupler With Stepper Driver Board
  • Stepper Power Supply Board.
  • Sensors for Artificial Intelligence.
  • Mechanical Model
  • Electromagnet
  • Blower

PIC 16F877 Controller board

This is the heart of the system. This controller is responsible for the total control of the system.

OptoCoupler With Stepper Driver Board

The need of Optocoupler is to isolate the Interface Board form the Stepper Motor to restrict any high voltage to the Interface board.  And this board also contains stepper Driver circuit to amplify the Voltage and to withstand high current because the pulse coming out from the Interface is not tough enough to drive the Motor.

Stepper Power Supply

This board contains the power Supply for the stepper motor and relay driver.

Sensors for Artifical Intelligence

The Art of putting some human brain into a Machine is Artificial Intelligence.  Sensors are provided to achieve this task.  For Eg. The robot and position itself when it finds some obstacle in its path, or Flame or hot Materials.


An electromagnet is simply a coil of wire.  It is usually wound around an iron core.  However, it could be wound around an air core, in which case it is called a solenoid.  When connected to a DC voltage or current source, the electromagnet becomes energized, creating a magnetic field just like a permanent magnet.


Blowers have one of seven types of wheels, normally mounted in a fan or blower housing. The air enters the housing inlet, is turned 90 degrees and is exhausted out of the housing discharge

Software Requirements

  • Software Driver in HITECH C Language

Block Diagram

Download (PDF, 118KB)